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教师干预与数据收集

来源:原创论文网 添加时间:2018-03-04

本篇文章目录导航:

【题目】大学英语词汇教学中多模态理论的应用
【第一章】高校英语词汇课中多模理论的运用引言
【2.1-2.2】多式联运和多模态理论基础
【2.3-2.4】词汇教学和多模词汇教学
【2.5】以往有关多模态教学问题研究
【3.1-3.3】词汇教学研究问题、对象及方法
【3.4-3.5】教师干预与数据收集
【第四章】多模词汇教学实施结果与效果讨论
【第五章-参考文献】多模教学在大学英语词汇学习中的应用结论与参考文献

 

 3.4 Teacher Intervention。

  The entire study is made from March 2017 to June 2017. The experimentalclass is taught vocabulary in the multimodal teaching method and the control class istaught vocabulary in the traditional teaching method. The core vocabularies fromunit 5 to unit 8 in The experiencing English Integrated Coursebook (third edition)are taught during the entire study.

  The following are the basic steps of multimodal vocabulary teaching method: 1.

  The students present or illustrate some simple target vocabulary as far as possible inmultimodal form before the class; 2. Students finish their presentation in class (every6 students in one study group, as time is limited, 1 representative in each group ischosen), and the teacher revises, supplements, and explain the new words; 3. The teacher uses multimodal resources to prepare the teaching content before class andinteracts with students as much as possible in the classroom to take the form ofquestion and answer; 4. Students finish some exercises including recognition ofindividual words, matching exercises, guessing words, making sentences, etc.; 6.

  Students summarize what they have learnt first and then the teacher makes asummary; 8. The teacher assigns the homework.

  In the teaching preparation stage of the experimental class, the teaching goal isdetermined at first, with the consideration of the vocabulary teaching content,consequently, multimedia courseware is provided by the teachers. The teachercreates vivid, real, and pleasant learning environment for the students as far aspossible in order to deepen the students’ vocabulary memory and reduce the memoryburden of new vocabulary. Additionally, some teaching prediction about the newlesson has to be done. Many factors are taken into account, such as gestures, bodylanguage, facial expression as well as the pace of teaching, the control of time, theexplanatory manner of the difficult points. In short, the teachers use multimode asmuch as possible, which includes sounds, gestures, pictures, videos to transferinformation to students.

  During the presentation of the experimental class, the introduction of newvocabulary is an important link. Teachers choose different modes to present andillustrate according to different types of words. Some words are visualized withpictures, while some are abstract and then teachers put them in tiny video clips tohelp students understand and digest the new vocabulary. In the courseware presentation, the teacher highlights the emphasis part in virtue of bold, marked red oradd small animation.

  In the teaching practice stage of the experimental class, the teacher encouragesthe student to summarize what they have learnt with peers at first because students’

  summary is an easier way for them to understand and practice the knowledge bythemselves. The teacher also encourages students to present their vocabulary in amultimodal way, which helps them to deepen their impressions. In the consolidationof practice, the teacher takes full advantage of multimedia courseware, pictures, andother tools to make the exercise being full of situational authenticity andcommunicative authenticity. Students are encouraged to use new words to createdialogues as well as increase the using frequency of the new vocabulary.
 

教师干预与数据收集
 

  In the multimodal teaching class, students are the main body of the classroomand they actively participate in the teaching process, teachers listen to the students,evaluate the performance of students, and summarize the difficulties. Teaching taskis finished in a relaxed and enjoyable atmosphere with the cooperation of teachersand students.

  There are some kinds of specific design of multimodal vocabulary teachinginstruction from the following vocabulary teaching samples selected fromExperiencing English Integrated Coursebook1.

  Sample 1: “brew”, “cartoon”. For some conception vocabulary, teachers usesome video clips to introduce new words, and students’ attention can be attractedefficiently. The students guess the meaning of the new words based on these fragments and then the teacher supplements and explains them afterwards. Take theword “brew” as an example. First, a short clip of a video is shown to the students, inwhich there is a pretty woman brewing the coffee. The teacher asks the students toguess the meaning of “brew”. Some of the students guess the meaning easily andproduce us a model sentence; “He read the newspaper while the tea brewed”. At last,the teacher explains the further meaning of the word, “something is going to behappen.” The usage of word in a former occasion is showed on the silverware todeepen students’ memory.

  Sample 2: “campus”, “cafeteria”, “freshman”, “Buckingham Palace”. For thevocabularies that represent a scene, the teacher shows a lot of pictures about the newwords on the PPT courseware, which are the campus scenery, the physicalenvironment of cafeteria, freshman entrance chart to help students remember thesewords. These pictures are also used to match up with the unknown vocabulary inorder to consolidate the memorization of the words when students are doingexercises.

  Sample 3: “backbone”, “bow”. The teacher uses some gestures to help herillustrate the new words. Take “backbone” as an example. The word has the meaningthat the most important part of an organization or group of people, besides, it has themeaning of the row of connected bones that go down the middle of one’s back. Atthis time, the teacher points to that body part. Some body language can relieve manystudents’ burden of memorizing words.

  Sample 4: “incredible”, “excitement”, “depression”, “relieve”. As for somesensory words or the words which express emotions, the teacher asks students to getinvolved in the preparation for the multimodal presentation of the words. Studentsare invited to the front of the classroom to perform some emotional vocabulary.

  Actually, they are happy to participate in it. Students are in a very relaxed andenjoyable way to memorize words and improve the acceptance of these words duringthe process of performance and appreciation of the performance. Naturally, studentsuse new words to make sentences or to express their feelings as much as possible;the output of words is increased at the same time.

  Multimodal teaching advocates the simultaneous operation of various senses inorder to strengthen memory and improve teaching efficiency. During the process ofthe vocabulary explanation, the teacher uses the animation video, the sound, and theother various modes to fully arouse the learner’s visual and accoustic sensory. Themultimodal information input completes the student’s vocabulary memory inunconscious way.

  The animation video mode is used most frequently in the study. The studyutilizes the vividness and focus of online English news, interview video, picture, anddiagram, which is regarded as one of the most important ways to improve students’

  enthusiasm and learning initiative and an effective way to strengthen memory.

  Taking the new words in the fourth unit of The Experiencing English IntegratedCoursebook 1 as an example, it contains many words which express emotionfluctuation, such as “envy”, “excitement”, “panic”, “queasy”, and “reluctantly”. The traditional vocabulary teaching method is to explain the meaning of words, but therich characters’ images can help students understand and remember new words.

  Therefore, the images and pictures in the PPT directly reflect the meaning of theseemotional verbs, so that learners appropriately understand and use the word. Thepictures are as below:

  

  In addition, the illustrative sentences of the new words can be accompanied byan interview video, such as how to explain “acquaintance”. The dialogues in thevideo are contextual and have phonetic intonation. A text dialogue can visually showthe specific usage and background of the word. The dialogue is as follows:

  Rosie: When did you make the acquaintance of his sister Scarlet?

  Andy: I first made her acquaintance in the late 1990s. On first acquaintance shewas cool and slightly distant, but she improved a lot on further acquaintance.

  This video is Rosie and Andy’s memories of their mutual friend when they firstmeet Scarlet. The use of this language and Non-verbal collocation are the main formof multimodal teaching, which makes the expression of words more practical andclose to students’ life.

  Mind map is also a good way to stand out the main content. It not onlyhighlights the key words, but also clarifies the structure of the article. Take thepassage B in the fifth unit of The Experiencing English Integrated Coursebook 1 asan example. The passage is about how to keep a well-balanced life in the universityand give readers some useful advice to relieve stress. The teacher lists the key wordsof each paragraph and the main structure of the passage is also shown in the picture.

  The mind map is as follow:

  

  Auditory modal also plays an important role in multimodal vocabulary teaching.

  The exquisiteness and interest of popular English songs or English stories enablestudents to appreciate the charm of classic songs or classic monologues. It is also anindispensable part of stimulating students’ deep memory to be with songs oraesthetic appreciation in vocabulary teaching. Take passage A in the eighth unit ofThe Experiencing English Integrated Coursebook 1 as an example. The authordescribes the precious memories in college and the intimate friendship between herroommates. She also stresses that the friendship in college is the most precioustreasure during her rest of life.

  Therefore, the English song (Shining friends) is utilized to help studentsmemorize the new knowledge. The words and phrases (“alone” “faith” “holding hands” “in a corner”) from this passage are also reflected in the following lyrics:

  A little faith brightens a rainy day;Life is difficult you can’t go away;Don’t hide yourself in a corner;You have my place to stay;You’ll never be alone in darkness;See my smile my friend;We are with you holding hands.

  The English illustrative example in one mode is only a temporary memory. Ifthe new knowledge is not associated with reality, students will lose interest andmotivation. Students listen, understand, and express the new words with a piece ofmusic and lyrics, and the atmosphere in the classroom is mobilized. The above musicfits the theme of this article and covers some of the core vocabulary of the article,which is beneficial to the explanation of the new words and sentences.

  3.5 Data Collection and Analysis。

  Teaching experiment, questionnaire, and interview method are the objective anddetailed instruments in the paper are acquired through the results of pre-test,post-tests, and questionnaires, while others are the answers to interviews. In order tomaintain the authenticity and validity of the collected data, the researcher is onlymanaging as a participant throughout the research process.

  3.5.1 Data Collection。

  The research data are collected from three instruments, which are tests,questionnaire, and interview. The teaching experiment starts from March 2017 andfinishes in June 2017. The students are required to answer a vocabulary test paper asthe pre-test at the first class of the semester. The results show that the students’

  English proficiency are at the similar level. After the teaching experiment, all thestudents are asked to finish a vocabulary quiz and the students don’t know the quizin advance.The statistics of pre-test and post-test are collected in a moment. Aftercollecting the data, the SPSS 17.0 is used to analyze the collected data of the scoresof tests. SPSS 17.0 is a kind of comprehensive software that could be used todescribe experimental data and analyze the data for T-Test, which ensured thatexperimental results are more effective and reliable.

  Questionnaires printed in Chinese are distributed after the quiz at the last classin the semester. After the teaching experiment semester, 30 students of theexperimental class are invited to participate in the questionnaire survey, numerically30 students are mentioned. There are 30 valid questionnaires to be returned, so therecovery utilization rate is 100%. The answers are recorded and processed accordingto the score and followed by data analysis.

  Face-to-face interviews with students are used to collect data. Interviews areapplied to collect some specific verbal data, and the collected data may not match upto the expectations (Brown, 2001). Patton (1990) believes that the interview is apowerful tool for data collection and interviewers can obtain information from the interviewee, which is not available from observation.

  One-to-one personal interviews are more beneficial to experimental researchthan group interviews, while one-to-one personal interviews are more confidentialand help respondents speak out the most authentic ideas (Brown, 2001). Researcherscan get a lot of information from respondents’ answers, but only through one-to-oneinterview patterns. (Marshall and Rossmann, 1995) All in all, one-to-one interviewsbeing applied to collect data is really necessary.

  The interviewees are randomly selected on the basis of their higher, medium orlower English proficiency. There are two students in each group. They areinterviewed face to face in the office room after the last class. Each student isinterviewed alone, and interview time is controlled within 15 minutes. The interviewquestions are asked in Chinese, the main interview questions are shown in theappendix D. Besides, before the interview, the students are told the purpose andmeaning of the conversation, and they are very active and cooperative during theprocess of the research. In addition, the researcher promises that the content of theinterview would be used only for research. They could speak freely and tell the truthto ensure the validity of data, because the record of interviews is confidential anddocumentary disposal is under the consideration by the research.

  3.5.2 Data Analysis。

  In this section, the thesis discusses how to analyze all the collected data.

  Through the analysis of the data, the thesis could list the differences between the experimental group and the control group in the teaching experiment.

  3.5.2.1 Analysis of Tests and Questionnaires。

  The study collects the digital form of statistics from the pre-test, the post-test,and the delivered questionnaires. In order to show more clearly and intuitively effectof detecting multimodal vocabulary teaching patterns, the findings of study are listedin tabular form. Through the analysis of these data, the study evaluates the teachingeffect of multimodal vocabulary teaching method and the students’ attitudes withregard to multimodal vocabulary teaching method by using SPSS 17.0.

  3.5.2.2 Analysis of Interview。

  The collection and analysis of research data is conducted simultaneously withthe interview process. (Merriam, 1998). In the analysis of the interview results, twodifferent analytical procedures are used in the study, which are the meaning-centeredmethod and the finding-centered method. The main purpose of meaning-centeredmethod is to realize the participants’ ideas, rather than the author’s own experienceor understanding of the teaching approach. The finding-centered method is mainly toestablish a link between data and multimodal vocabulary teaching patterns accordingto students’ answers during the interview.

  Some inductive analysis is done according to the answers to interview questions.

  Therefore, the “coding system” is employed during the data analysis. There are fourstages of the coding system in line with Glaser and Strauss (Lincoln, Guba, & Pilotta,1985) as below.

  l Comparing incidents applicable to each category;l Integrating categories and their properties;l Delimiting the theory;l Writing the theory;The production of interview was browsed and refreshed at first, determined theapproximate direction and characteristics, and then summed up the interviewcontents in detail according to the contents of each small direction or differentattitudes.

  Lincoln, Guba, & Pilotta (1985) considered that the basic task of arrangingcontent is to categorize and several types of resources can be used, such as data,initial or urgent research issues, and previous experience. The study agreed with thiskind of view, but there must be some kind of intrinsic consistency among theseresearch resources, which are related to a common subject. In the study, the line byline method is used to encode the interview contents and then to determine thestudents’ attitudes towards multimodal vocabulary teaching and the suggestions onits deficiencies. By marking and checking the similarities and differences of the data,the data are classified into different small sections. After the data are categorized, theresults could be explained and interpreted. In the process of classification, theclassification criteria might be changed appropriately according to the detailedcontents of the interview.

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