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**本篇文章目录导航：**

【题目】大学英语词汇教学中多模态理论的应用

【第一章】高校英语词汇课中多模理论的运用引言

【2.1-2.2】多式联运和多模态理论基础

【2.3-2.4】词汇教学和多模词汇教学

【2.5】以往有关多模态教学问题研究

【3.1-3.3】词汇教学研究问题、对象及方法

【3.4-3.5】教师干预与数据收集

【第四章】多模词汇教学实施结果与效果讨论

【第五章-参考文献】多模教学在大学英语词汇学习中的应用结论与参考文献

** Chapter 4 Results and Discussion**

In accordance with the teaching experiment procedure adopted in themethodology, the research questions are answered, and the results are discussed andanalyzed in this chapter. Chapter Four not only shows the results of pre-test andpost-test, questionnaire and interview, but also discusses the students’ attitudestowards multimodal vocabulary teaching and the effect of the teaching approach.

** 4.1 Results。**

In this part, the results of data are analyzed and discussed with the help ofstatistical analysis software SPSS 17.0. The data are collected from tests in thesemester of experimental research. The scores in the form of test table are analyzedand the results of the study are discussed.

** 4.1.1 Results of the Tests。**

In the cause of answering the first research question, two tests and the teachingintervention are conducted on teaching experiments. The pre-test and the post-testare measured respectively. Therefore, the following sections will explain the resultsof the tests.

** 4.1.1.1 Results of the Pre-test。**

The pre-test is utilized to clarify whether the level of lexical competence ofexperimental class (EC) and control class (CC) is roughly equal. The test resultsshown in Table 4.1 are taken from the pre-test scores of EC and CC. The SPSS 17.0is used to carry on the statistics and obtains the following result:

From the table 4.1, we can get the point that the average score of EC is 75.50,while the average score of CC is 76.07. The scores of Sig.2-tailed in T-test forEquality of Means is 0.798, which is more than 0.05 and it means that there is not astatistically difference between the scores of two classes. Two classes’ averagescores are very close to each other, so the comparison of the two classes isguaranteed.

** 4.1.1.2 Results of the Post-test。**

The test structure and difficulty degree of two tests is similar to each other, sothe comparison results are very reliable. Both the pre-test and the post-test are basedon comprehensive, objective, and fair principles. The teaching experiment eliminatessome unavoidable interfering factors and makes the experimental data reach therequired validity.

The EC adopts the multimodal vocabulary teaching approach and CC accepts the traditional vocabulary teaching approach during the semester. After the teachingexperiment, the vocabulary performance of two classes are tested and all theparticipants don’t know the quit in advance. Both the pre-test and post-test apply thesame question types and degree of difficulty.

The SPSS 17.0 is used to describe the research data. The independent-samplesT-test is used to compare the scores in the control class and the experimental classafter the teaching experiment. The paired samples T-test is utilized to contrast thevariation of the vocabulary proficiency of the same group before and after theteaching experiments. The comparative analysis of the change of results is applied toreact the effects of different teaching method.

From the above data, it can be concluded that the average grade of CC is 77.47,which is applied the traditional vocabulary teaching method, and that the averagegrade of EC which is taught by the multimodal vocabulary teaching method is 88.40.

The scores of the experimental class are much higher than the control classes, andthe numerical difference is 10.93, which means there exists significant difference. Inaddition, the score of Sig.2-tailed in T-test for Equality of Means is 0.000, which isless than 0.05 and it means that a statistically significant difference is reached.

Consequently, the obvious illustration will be put forward that there is a close relationship between teaching methods and students’ vocabulary test results, and theresult shows that the influence of multimodal vocabulary teaching mode on students’

vocabulary learning is better than that of traditional vocabulary teaching methods.

After the teaching experiment, the test results of EC taught with multimodalteaching methods are counted. According to the results of table 4.3, the grade of EC,in which is taught with multimodal teaching approach is 88.40, while the grade ofpre-test of EC is 75.50. The students in the experimental class have made a greatprogress. Besides, the score of Sig.2-tailed in T-test for Equality of Means is 0.000,which is less than 0.05 and it means that a statistically significant difference wasreached. Hence, it is considered that the mode of vocabulary teaching based onmultimodality is very effective.

After the teaching experiment, the results of CC taught with traditional teachingmethods are counted, too. According to the results of table 4.4, the pre-test score ofCC is 76.07 while the post-test score of CC is 77.47. The average scores are still very close to each other. Besides, the score of Sig.2-tailed in T-test for Equality ofMeans is 0.595, which is more than 0.05, which means that no significancedifference is found in their vocabulary performance in the pre-test and the post-testof CC. It can be inferred that the traditional teaching method is less effective than themultimodal teaching method.

**4.1.2 Results of Questionnaire。**

In order to understand the degree of recognition and teaching effect ofmultimodal vocabulary teaching approach, the questionnaires are distributed tostudents in the experimental class. Because the experimental class which acceptmultimodal vocabulary teaching are only consisted of 30 students, all experimentalclass students are delivered questionnaires. In order to ensure that the researchfindings are convinced and valid, and avert some possible interference factors,questionnaires are conducted in a bearer form.

The questionnaire is designed with 15 multiple-choice questions and thespecific questions are presented in the questionnaire (attached appendix A).

Questionnaire survey adopts the Likert five scale table scoring method, themultiple-choice answers are designed from the “fully agree”, “agree”, “uncertainty”,“not agree” to “completely disagree”, the score is from 5 points to 1 point in turn.

Obviously, the average score of the problem is higher, and the degree of consent tothis question is higher. If the average score is greater than or equal to 3 points, itmeans that the most of participants approve that point of view. Conversely, if the average score of the question is under 3 points, it can be considered that mostrespondents are against or disagree with the point of view. This way can be moreobjective and clear to show the degree of recognition of multimodal teachingapproach of the participants. Through the questionnaire survey, the researcherevaluates the multimodal vocabulary teaching method used in the course ofexperiment teaching, investigates the students’ attitude towards the teaching method,and also probes the validity of multimodal teaching method on students’ lexicallearning and autonomous learning ability according to the usual class situation.

The descriptive statistics of the questionnaire questions 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 13 whichpoint to the students’ attitudes with regard to multimodal vocabulary teachingapproach are analyzed below:

According to the chart, the scores of the six answers are from 4.38 to 4.03, theaverage score of these six answers is 4.23 and all of the scores are higher than 3points, which indicate that the method of multimodal vocabulary teaching isgenerally accepted by more than 80% of the participants. The tested students arevery sympathetic to question 1 and 2, which prove that the students who had been tested enjoys the several sensory stimulations of the teaching mode and are moreactive in the multimodal teaching mode. The scores of the question 4 and 5 are alsohigh, which prove that most of the tested students agree that multimodal vocabularyteaching approach improves their participation in the classroom. The scores of thequestion 3 and 13 are also more than 4 points which mean that the multimodalvocabulary teaching approach has aroused their interest in learning English and thatthe traditional vocabulary teaching model is too tedious to arouse their enthusiasmfor learning English.

Based on the results of the questionnaire, the statements of each issue on thestudents’ attitudes towards multimodal teaching method can be summarized asfollows:

I like this multiple-mode teaching model of sensory stimulation in a morerelaxed teaching atmosphere, I prefer to answer the teacher’s question because Idon’t have any burden. Multimodal vocabulary teaching approach has an effectiveinfluence on my attitude towards learning English. In English class, the interactionbetween teachers and students enhances my participation in the classroom.

Multimodal teaching mode can improve the participation of my learning and reducedistracting during lessons. The traditional vocabulary teaching model is too dull andboring to arouse my interest in learning.

The descriptive statistics of the questionnaire questions 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14,15 which point to the effects of multimodal vocabulary teaching approach towardsstudents’ vocabulary learning are analyzed below:

The above statistics shows that the mean scores of all the items are over threeand the average score of these questions is 4.19. It proves that almost all the studentsagree that the multimodal vocabulary teaching approach has a positive influence onthe vocabulary acquisition. The mean of question 9 has the highest score (4.33points), which means that the examples of those life-related cases under multimodalteaching mode deepen students’ understanding and memory of vocabulary. Thetested students are very sympathetic to question 6 and 10, which prove thatmultimodal courseware can attract their attention and the real language environmentcan make their memory be more profound as well as improve their ability of usingvocabulary. In addition, the mean of question 8 and question 11 is 4.18 points, whichindicates that multimodal courseware can help students understand the meaning andcollocation of vocabulary intuitively and improve the students’ listening ability to acertain extent.

According to the results of the questionnaire, the statements of each issue on theeffects of multimodal teaching method can be summarized as follows:

Multimodal PPT courseware pictures, text, video, and voice can attract myattention, deepen my impression of words, and reduce the memory burden ofvocabulary. In Multimodal teaching mode, the memory of vocabulary is more lastingand profound than the memory of vocabulary under traditional teaching mode.

Multimodal PPT courseware on the pictures, text, video, voice can help me have abetter understanding of the meaning and usage of words, because it can be moresystematic, multi-directional display of the meaning of words, collocation andexamples. The examples given by teachers in multimodal teaching mode are closelyrelated to life, which make me have more association and deepen the understandingand memory of vocabulary. In the classroom, the teacher uses the multi-media andthe other teaching means to simulate the real-life situation and causes me toexperience the real language environment. It enhances the ability to use thevocabulary. Multimodal vocabulary teaching mode provides the auditory image ofwords and helps me improve my auditory ability. Multimodal vocabulary teachingmode helps me improve my English proficiency. The memory burden of vocabularyunder multimodal mode is less than the burden under traditional mode. Generallyspeaking, vocabulary teaching in multimodal mode is more helpful for myvocabulary learning.

** 4.1.3 Results of Interview。**

The interview questions cover students’ attitudes towards the multimodalvocabulary teaching approach, the effect of the multimodal teaching method, and the suggestions for the multimodal teaching method.

For the first question, “Do you like and adapt to English vocabulary teachingbased on multimodality”? None of the six students had enough knowledge of theteaching approach, but five of them said that they knew a lot about visual andauditory design skills. According to the data from the interviews, students agree thatthe physical environments and the verbal or body language of the teacher are veryhelpful for their understanding of the knowledge. One student recalled, “The eyecontact with the teacher and her gestures can inspire me to speak what I think andparticipate more actively in the classroom activities.”

In terms of technology, one student in the interview said: “I have the deepimpression on the lively teaching material what the teacher provides us, so I lookforward having more prepared lively teaching materials. I like the English class morethan before, because the teacher often gives us a lot of surprises and I don’t feelbored during the English class.”

Under normal circumstances, there are 2/3 students like lively, situationalreproduction of vocabulary teaching method. 1/6 of people think that livelycourseware sometimes distracts them and consider that the abundant information istoo much for them to take notes of what they have learned. As for their interest inmemorizing vocabulary, most of them are more willing to learn new English wordsthan before. Based on this result, most of them adapt and prefer multimodalvocabulary teaching patterns. But some students think that some of the flashycourseware disturb their attractiveness. In addition, a student who is weak in English said, “Sometimes it is difficult to keep pace with the teacher, in the vivid and givencontext of the examples, there are still a lot of new words which I don’t know, so myunderstanding and memorizing is a bit laborious”. These potential problems need tobe reconsidered in further studies. In short, teachers are advised to enhance thepresentation of the key information and reduce unnecessary information.

** 4.2 Discussion。**

After analyzing the results of the obtained data from the teaching experiments,questionnaire, and interview in the last section, the results of the thesis will bediscussed according to the research questions and the inner reason of the effects ofmultimodal teaching approach will be illustrated to fulfil the reinforcement.

** 4.2.1 Effects of Multimodal Vocabulary Teaching Method。**

According to social semiotics, the social symbolic systems were utilized totransfer information and make practices meaningful. Information transfer not onlythrough clear transmission, but also through all forms of socially meaningfulactivities (speaking, drawing, etc.). Therefore, multimodal vocabulary teachingmethod was used in the study. The results of the study showed that the teachingmethod had the positive effects on vocabulary learning and coincided with theresults of Jewitt’s study.

The findings of the present study do, however, support Liu Yanbin (2011)concluded that multimodal vocabulary teaching mode has a positive influence on college English teaching. He selected three forms of multimodality in Englishvocabulary teaching (English original movies, multimodal ppt and Web corpora)respectively, explained the theoretical basis of these three forms and their practicalapplication in teaching, so as to explore the guiding role of multimodal discourse inEnglish vocabulary teaching.

The findings also lend support to Gan Luoying and Kuang Shuping’s (2011)acknowledgement of the positive influence of multimodal discourse analysis onforeign language vocabulary teaching, at the same time, they further put forward theteaching strategy of multimodal vocabulary teaching according to the characteristicsof multimodal teaching approach.

From the results of Table 4.1 to table 4.4, we can answer the initial question: theeffects of multimodal teaching mode on vocabulary teaching. The experimentalresults show that the vocabulary acquisition of the experimental group which taughtwith the multimodal vocabulary teaching mode is better than that of the controlgroup. The students get the better vocabulary test scores when they are employed themultimodal vocabulary teaching mode than they are taught with traditional mode. Infact, the one semester teaching experiment has some help in improving thevocabulary proficiency of two classes, but obviously, the experimental group hasmade a greater progress.

The following comments are the description of the positive effects generated bythe multimodal vocabulary teaching mode.

First, the physical and environmental factors of the classroom create the meaning of teaching and communication. The teacher stands in the middle of theclassroom among the students. This seating arrangement facilitates their interactionwith each other. In addition, computer and the other multimedia auxiliary devices areoften used in teaching experiments. These high-tech teaching aids are more intuitiveand efficient than the blackboard, and also save writing time on the blackboard. Withthe help of all kinds of teaching aids, it is easy for teachers to present vivid images ofteaching content, which is more likely to arouse students’ attention. At the same time,teachers, teaching language, gestures, and facial expressions can also enhance thestudents’ visual modality effect.

Secondly, the study shows that in the teaching experiment, the teacher’s gesture,expression, and diversity of body action can inspire students to participate moreactively in the classroom activities and their function is to help students use theEnglish words to respond the teacher and express their own ideas. In theory, theseteaching aids are used to create realistic contexts of conceptual and interpersonalmeaning. In addition, teachers create contextual meanings through graphs or soundsto help students have a better understanding of the meaning of words. Music, sound,and images are always the main tools for disseminating information. Hence, theteacher ought to employ gestures and the other body language as many as possible tointeract with students.

Thirdly, the study analyzes and discusses the specific section of various parts ofmultimodal vocabulary teaching. For example, in the warm-up period, teachers canuse original English movie clips to carry out context and import the new words.Using PPT to combine vivid image, sound, and vocabulary teaching to improveclassroom teaching effect and sound and visual effect can enhance students’ memoryof teaching content. In the practical section, the teacher uses some pictures or theother multimodal resources to design some exercises or ask the students to completea small dialogue or play with the new words according to the pictures, which canindirectly improve their English output ability. In summary, the multimodalvocabulary teaching approach acts as a powerful way to improve students’ vocabulary acquisition.

** 4.2.2 Students’ Attitudes towards Multimodal Vocabulary Teaching Method。**

On the basis of the statistics results of the questionnaires and the interview, thestudents who are taught with the multimodal vocabulary teaching approach had beenfamiliar with it and appreciate it. The increasing interest is not only in the light of theactive presentation of students in the class, but also on the basis of vocabulary testsscores after the teaching experiments. With the vigorous enthusiasm, they could havea better understanding, memorizing, and tests score of the new learning contentsafter the class.

To begin with, as for the physical and technical aspects, the multimodalvocabulary teaching approach provides more activity room and more vividinformation for the students to understand the new contents. Because sometimes theteacher asks the students to sit with each other in a circle, the students can utilize thebody language to assist themselves to express their ideas. The vivid and colorful multimodal PPT compared with the sounds help the students have a solidmemorization of the new vocabulary. As Kress and Van Leeuwen (2004) pointed outthat images played a crucial role in language learning and body language, eyecontact, and the other physical environment also had the positive effects on thelanguage learning.

As for the role the teacher, they are not only the organizers of the multimodalclasses, but also the indicators, advisers, and evaluators of the students and thelesson. The teacher should have enough teaching enthusiasm and the professionalvocabulary proficiency to interact with the students. The more interaction betweenteachers and students, the more progress in the lesson will be got.

Furthermore, the teacher should design different class activity and teachingcontent to help the students have a better understanding and memorization. Thethesis draws the conclusion that the multimodal vocabulary teaching approach isvery effective for most of the students. But there are still many students who havethe lower English proficiency deeming that the multimodal vocabulary teaching istoo hard for them to catch up with the teachers and the other students’ learning steps.

Sometimes they can’t understand the complicate examples and the others’ wordsduring the class. They don’t have enough time to take notes and they are alwaysattract by the vivid pictures and sounds missing the important information of the newcontent. Their learning difficulty and disability can’t be overcomed in a short day orwith a simple teaching method. The solution of problems needs the students’

subjective effort, teacher’s patience as well as the suitable learning instruction.

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