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黑土生态脆弱区侵蚀沟治理策略探析

来源:原创论文网 添加时间:2019-03-28

本篇文章目录导航:

【题目】黑土生态脆弱区侵蚀沟治理策略探析
【第一章】侵蚀沟生态修复技术研究绪论
【第二章】黑土生态脆弱区识别及生态脆弱性评价
【第三章】黑土生态脆弱区侵蚀沟治理技术适应性分析
【4.1-4.2.1】土壤水文物理性状
【4.2.2-4.3】土壤肥力特征
【第五章】黑土生态脆弱区侵蚀沟生态修复关键改良技术
【第六章-参考文献】黑土地侵蚀沟环境整治技术探究结论与参考文献

  摘要

  
  随着开发力度不断加大,东北黑土区水土流失问题引起了广泛关注,其中侵蚀沟的发生发展及危害尤为引人注目。目前,国家针对黑土侵蚀沟问题投入了巨大的人力物力进行工程治理,但侵蚀沟的基础研究相对滞后。特别是黑土区西北部的生态脆弱区,迫切需求基础理论和生态修复技术的研究开发。在此背景下,本论文工作通过资料调研、实地调查监测、采样分析、模拟实验等方法,对黑土生态脆弱区侵蚀沟发生发展与生态修复技术等展开研究,得出以下结论:
  
  (1)黑土生态脆弱区地理空间范围为辽宁西北部阜新地区、吉林西北部白城地区、内蒙古赤峰和通辽北部及兴安盟地区。区域生态脆弱性发展趋势是趋于恶化,主要驱动因素包括降雨集中、产业类型单一,低山丘陵的地形地貌,土壤干旱贫瘠,植被覆盖率低等。
  
  (2)区域农田和荒山荒坡侵蚀沟发育,大中小型侵蚀沟广布,100 m 以上侵蚀沟 41019 条,总长度 33877.322 km,总面积 92092.78 ha;该区域侵蚀沟专项治理时间短,规模小、措施单一,沟内土壤干旱贫瘠,植被定植困难,沟道工程主要以石笼谷坊为主,出现了谷坊淤塞和两侧掏蚀等突出问题。
  
  (3)将直线形谷坊改良为拱形,采用 ANSYS LS-DYNA 和 MIDAS GTS 软件模拟分析及类似工程监测计算,发现改良后的谷坊有利于泥沙淤积、植被恢复和保护岸坡的稳定性。
 

黑土生态脆弱区侵蚀沟治理策略探析

  
  (4)该区域土壤物理性状总体表现不利于蓄水保水,随侵蚀加强,土壤质地有粗粒化、砂化发展的趋势;侵蚀沟土壤全氮含量在 0.039%-0.257%之间,磷素含量在 0.071%-0.177%之间,钾素含量在 0.4%-1.75%,土壤平均有机质水平在 4%左右,与全国土壤平均水平比,氮、磷、钾均表现缺乏,有机质含量适中;保水效果较好的方式为保水剂+覆膜复合条件;增施 40-160 mg/kg 的氮肥,20-80 mg/kg磷肥,40-320 mg/kg 钾肥时对植物生长具有较为明显的促进作用,在氮肥 320mg/kg、磷肥 160 mg/kg、钾肥 320 mg/kg 以上时促进作用减弱或产生抑制作用。
  
  关键词:生态脆弱区,侵蚀沟,生态修复,中国东北
  

  Abstract

  
  With increasing development, the problem of soil erosion has been paid wideattention, especially the occurrence and harm of erosion gullies, in black soilarea,China. In recent years, the state has invested tremendous manpower and materialresources in control engineering of erosion gully, but the basic research of erosion gullycontrol is relatively rare. Especially for the eco-fragile areas in the northwest of theblack soil region, there is an urgent need for the research and development of basictheory and ecological restoration technologies. This paper researched the occurrenceand development of erosion gully in eco-fragile area of black soil by means of datainvestigation, field monitoring, sampling and experiments. The main results andconclusions are as following:
  
  (1) The location of eco-fragile area of black soil lies in Fuxin in NorthwestLiaoning, Baicheng in Northwest Jilin, Chifeng in Inner Mongolia, northern Tongliaoand Xing'an League. The regional eco-vulnerability tends to deteriorate. The maindriving factors include concentrated rainfall, single industrial type, hilly topography,drought and barren soil, low vegetation coverage and so on.
  
  (2) The erosion gullies were developed in slope farmland and barren hillside in theregion, with 41 019 erosion gullies over 100m, total length is up to33877.322 Km andtotal area 92092.78 ha. The control measures are single, the soil in the gullies is dry andbarren, and the vegetation planting is difficult. The main problem of controlengineering is that most check dams have been damaged after years.
  
  (3) The shape of check dam was changed from line to arch. The simulationanalysis by ANSYS LS-DYNA and MIDAS GTS software and monitoring of similarfield engineering showed that the improved check dam is beneficial to sedimentdeposition, vegetation restoration and stability of bank of erosion gully.
  
  (4) The physical properties of the soil in this region are not conducive to waterstorage and water conservation. With the increase of erosion, the soil texture tends to becoarse-grained and sandy. The total nitrogen content of the soil in erosion gully ranges from 0.039% to 0.257%, the phosphorus content from 0.071% to 0.177%, thepotassium content from 0.4% to 1.75%, and the average organic matter level of the soilis about 4%, which is similar to that of the whole country. The nitrogen, phosphorusand potassium were deficient in soil, and the content of organic matter was moderate.
  
  The best way to water conservation is the compound of water retaining-agent and filmmulching. Adding 40-160 mg/kg of nitrogen fertilizer, 20-80 mg/kg of phosphorusfertilizer and 40-320 mg/kg of potassium fertilizer could obviously promote the growthof plants. over 320 mg/kg of nitrogen fertilizer, 160 mg/kg of phosphorus fertilizer and160 mg/kg of potassium fertilizer, the promotion effect is weakened, even has theopposite effect.
  
  Keywords:  the eco-fragile area, erosion gully, ecological restoration,northeasternChina
  
  目录
  
  摘要 .
  
  Abstract
  
  第 1 章 绪论 .

  
  1.1 研究目的及意义 .
  1.2 国内外研究现状 .
  1.2.1 生态脆弱性研究进展
  1.2.2 国内外侵蚀沟研究现状
  1.3 东北黑土区侵蚀沟概况及其成因与危害 .
  1.3.1 侵蚀沟概况
  1.3.2 侵蚀沟成因
  1.3.3 侵蚀沟的危害
  1.4 研究目标和研究内容 .
  1.4.1 研究内容及目标
  1.4.2 研究方法及技术路线
  
  第 2 章 黑土生态脆弱区识别及生态脆弱性评价
  
  2.1 黑土区生态脆弱区边界划定
  2.2 典型区生态脆弱性评价 .
  2.2.1 突泉县自然条件与经济概况
  2.2.2 突泉县生态脆弱性评价
  2.2.3 生态脆弱性评价指标权重
  2.3 突泉县生态脆弱性评价结果 .
  2.4 本章小结
  
  第 3 章 黑土生态脆弱区侵蚀沟治理技术适应性分析 .
  
  3.1 黑土生态脆弱区侵蚀沟治理情况调查 .
  3.2 黑土生态脆弱区已治理侵蚀沟调查与评价 .
  3.3 黑土生态脆弱区侵蚀沟治理技术适应性分析 .
  3.3.1 侵蚀沟发生立地条件分析及治理中存在的问题提炼 .
  3.3.2 典型侵蚀沟治技术适应性分析 .
  3.4 本章小结
  
  第 4 章 黑土生态脆弱区侵蚀沟土壤特征研究
  
  4.1 侵蚀沟典型研究区概况
  4.1.1 典型研究区选择 .
  4.1.2 研究区概况 .
  4.2 土壤物理性状及土壤肥力
  4.2.1 土壤水文物理性状 .
  4.2.2 土壤肥力特征 .
  4.3 本章小结
  
  第 5 章 黑土生态脆弱区侵蚀沟生态修复关键改良技术
  
  5.1 谷坊工程措施及改良
  5.1.1 谷坊问题及设计改良 .
  5.1.2 改良谷坊效果理论模拟评估 .
  5.1.3 改良谷坊工程效益监测评价 .
  5.2 土壤保水性能改良
  5.2.1 实验设计 .
  5.2.2 结果与分析 .
  5.3 土壤肥力改良
  5.3.1 实验设计 .
  5.3.2 结果与分析 .
  5.4 本章小结 .
  
  第 6 章 结论.
  
  参考文献

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