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夫妻一方所负债务纠纷问题研究

作者:原创论文网 时间:2015-07-25 15:17 加入收藏
    本篇婚姻法硕士论文目录导航:
    
    【第一章】:夫妻债务的基本理论
    【第四章】:完善我国立法的建议
    
    本篇婚姻法硕士论文【摘要】如下:


  摘要

  随着社会经济的高速发展和离婚率的不断攀升,以及《最高人民法院关于适用〈中华人民共和国婚姻法〉若干问题的解释(二)》的公布与实施,导致夫妻财产纠纷的问题愈加突出,而作为夫妻共同财产重要组成部分的夫妻债务,也呈现出日益复杂化的趋势,因此,对于夫妻债务性质的认定变得更加重要,处理难度也在不断的加大。

  夫妻离婚在分割财产的同时,夫妻双方也需要面对债务纠纷的承担问题,故研究处理夫妻债务性质的认定,不但关系到保护债务人配偶合法的财产权利以及婚姻关系的和谐稳定,也关系到债权人的合法权益能否实现,进而保护民事交易秩序的安定。而对于司法实务界而言,也希望有更详尽准确的规范可供遵循。本文从现实需要出发,结合国外立法的先进经验以及我国的立法现状,核心围绕正确认定夫妻共同债务以及夫妻个人债务,比较分析夫妻一方所负债务在夫妻内部与面对婚姻关系外部的第三人时不同的认定规则,对于夫妻债务的认定以及相关法律条款的完善试做一些探讨,并提出了完善夫妻债务制度的些许建议。希望在司法实践中处理夫妻债务纠纷时,能够在更加公正的保护夫妻双方利益的同时,也能充分维护债权人的合法权益。

  本论文除去引言和结论,可分为四部分。

  第一部分为夫妻债务及夫妻一方所负债务概述。主要介绍夫妻债务以及夫妻一方所负债务的基本概念、特征以及分类,并分析在离婚诉讼中夫妻债务以及夫妻一方债务纠纷产生争议的原因。通过比较的方法对域外国家不同的立法体例进行比较分析,总结域外立法对于我国夫妻债务认定问题的立法启示,为夫妻一方所负债务的性质认定提供理论探讨或者立法的依据。

  第二部分为夫妻一方所负债务在夫妻内部的认定。该部分主要阐述夫妻一方负债在夫妻内部的性质认定,通过评析我国法律及相关司法解释对夫妻一方所负债务性质的规定,概括总结夫妻一方所负债务作为夫妻共同债务或夫妻个人债务的范围,并引述学界对夫妻一方所负债务的主要观点及理论依据,对其进行评析,阐述本文的观点。对司法实践中存在的主要问题进行探讨,包括因赡养公婆、岳父母以及抚养各自的兄弟姐妹所导致的债务;因抚养继子女而发生的债务;夫妻一方因为学习深造或者学习某项技能而产生的债务以及夫妻在分居期间所产生的债务等。

  第三部分为夫妻一方所负债务对于债权人的认定。夫妻一方所负债务对于债权人的认定规则主要体现在《最高人民法院关于适用〈中华人民共和国婚姻法〉若干问题的解释(二)》第23条、24条的规定,论文第三部分对以上司法解释的规定进行了法律评析,并指出因为上述司法解释存在的缺陷导致司法实践中出现的诸多问题。

  第四部分为完善我国相关规则的主要建议。该部分针对我国夫妻一方所负债务在夫妻内部以及面对外部第三人时认定规则中存在的缺陷提出了完善的建议,主要包括对债务人的配偶行使抗辩权进行程序保障,对于司法实践中几种典型债务的性质进行明确,夫妻一方所负债务原则上推定为个人债务等制度。这些建议对于我国建立较为完善的夫妻一方所负债务法律制度的完善有着重要作用,可以有效的平衡夫妻双方与债权人的利益。

  关键词:夫妻一方债务;夫妻共同债务;夫妻个人债务;债权人

  ABSTRACT

  With the rapid development of social economy and the raising divorce rates,especially the implementation of Interpretation II of the supreme people's court on issuesof Marriage Law of People's Republic of China, the problem of marital property disputesbecome more prominent. While the marital common debts which is as important part ofjointly property of the spouses, shows the trend of increasingly complex, and theidentification of the nature of marital common debts become more important and difficultWhen refer to the division of property in divorce, the couple have to face the problem ofdebts assumption. Therefore, the identification of the nature of marital common debts is ofgreat importance, because it not only related to the protection of the lawful property rightsof the debtor's spouse and the harmonious and stable marital relationship, but also matterswhether the legitimate rights and interests of creditors can be achieved,thereby protectingthe stability of civil trading order. As for the judicial practice, more detailed and accuratespecifications are required. Based on the reality, this paper combines the advancedexperience of foreign legislation with the legislation of our country, around the core of theidentification of the marital common debts and personal debts of one of the spouses,analyze the different rules in identifying the personal debts of one part between wife andhusband and the personal debts of one of the spouse with the third party. The paper tries togive some opinions on the identification of the marital common debts and the perfection ofthe related provisions, and finally gives some advise on how to improve the maritalcommon debts system. Wish in the judicial practice, more just will be available to protectthe couple's rights and interests as well as the legitimate rights and interests of creditors.

    Besides the introduction and conclusion, this paper can be divided into four parts.

  The first part is about the introduction of the marital common debts and the debt ofone of the spouses. This part mainly introduces the basic concepts, characteristics andclassification of marital debt and the debt of one of the spouses, and analyzes the reasonshow the issues happen in the marital common debts in divorce proceedings and the debt ofone of the spouses. By comparing and analyzing different approaches of the extraterritorialcountry's legislative system, the paper gives some inspiration on legislative issues of theidentification of the marital debt,and provided the theoretical and legislative basis for theidentification of the debt of one of the spouses.

  The second part is talking about the identification of the debt of one of the spouseswithin the couple. By reviewing the related provisions and judicial interpretations aboutthe identification of the nature of the debt of one of the spouses, this paper summarize thescope whether the debt of one of the spouses belong to the marital common debts orpersonal debts obligations, and quoted the views and theoretical basis on the debt of one ofthe spouse for its assessment, the views set forth herein. The paper also focus on the mainproblem existing injudicial practice, including debts generated by supporting their parentsand raising siblings; raising stepchildren; one of the spouse goes for further study or learn askill and debt arising during the separation.

  The third part discuss the identification of the debt of one of the spouses incur debtsto creditors. The identification rules of the identification of the debt of one of the spousesincur debts to creditors mainly shows in Article 23,24 Interpretation II of the supremepeople's court on issues of Marriage Law of People's Republic of China. This part givessome comment on the said judicial interpretation provisions, and pointed out that there area lot of problems come in to being because of the existence of related judicialinterpretation.

  The fourth part is about the suggestions of how to improve the relevant rules. For thispart, it focuses on the flaws of the identification rules used in the identification of the debtof one of the spouses within the couple, and when faced with the third party, including theprocedural safeguards for the debtor's spouse to exercise the right of defense, the cleardefinition of the nature of a few typical debts in judicial practice, the debts of one of thespouse is presumed to be personal debt and so on. These suggestions are important toestablish a more perfect legal system of the debt of one of the spouses for our country, andalso can effectively balance the interests between the marital and creditors.

  Keywords: the debts of one of the spouse; the marital common debt; personal debt;creditors
 

  目录

  摘要

  ABSTRACT

  引言

  第1章 夫妻债务的基本理论

  1.1夫妻债务的概念

  1.2夫妻债务的类型

  1.2.1夫妻双方所负债务

  1.2.2夫妻一方所负债务

  1.3域外法的相关规定

  1.3.1夫妻一方所负债务作为个人债务的域外立法

  1.3.2夫妻一方所负债务作为共同债务的域外立法

  1.3.3域外立法的启示

  第2章 夫妻一方所负债务性质的内部认定规则

  2.1我国现行法律和司法解释的规定

  2.1. 1夫妻一方所负债务认定为个人债务

  2.1.2夫妻一方所负债务认定为共同债务

  2.2司法实务中存在的认定难点

  2.2.1因赡养公婆、岳父母以及抚养各自的兄弟姐妹所导致的债务

  2.2.2因抚养继子女而发生的债务

  2.2.3夫妻一方因为学习深造或者学习某项技能而产生的债务

  2.2.4夫妻在分居期间所产生的债务

  2.2.5经营过程中产生的债务举证困难

  第3章 夫妻一方所负债务性质的外部认定规则

  3.1现行司法解释的规定

  3.2法律评析

  3.2.1过度保护债权人的利益

  3.2.2与《婚姻法》第41条的规定易产生冲突

  3.2.3不符合“日常家事代理”的相关规定

  3.2.4影响人们对于婚姻的选择和预期

  第4章 完善我国立法的建议

  4.1完善夫妻一方所负债务的内部认定规则

  4.1.1对债务人配偶行使抗辩权进行程序保障

  4.1. 2进一步明确“夫妻共同生活”的范围

  4.1.3对于司法实践中几种典型债务的性质进行明确

  4.2完善夫妻一方所负债务的外部认定规则

  4.2.1夫妻一方所负债务原则上推定为个人债务

  4.2.2两项例外规定

  结论

  参考文献

  致谢


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