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人对自然的德道关怀探析

来源:原创论文网 添加时间:2019-02-25

本篇文章目录导航:

【题目】人对自然的德道关怀探析
【引言】非人类存在物的道德关怀探究绪论
【第一章】生态伦理中的道德关怀界定
【第二章】生态伦理道德关怀边界的延伸
【第三章】生态伦理关怀扩展的理论依据
【第四章】伦理关怀的道德实践要求
【第五章】当代生态伦理道德关注的现实启示
【结语与参考文献】生态环境的道德关注研究结语与参考文献

  中 文 摘 要

  
  从传统伦理到生态伦理,道德关怀的范畴从人到自然不断的发展扩大。而生态伦理对非人类的道德关怀的延伸,就是要延展人类的道德情感,使当代和未来后代的人类、动物,以及生态整体同等地获得道德地位和相同的道德考量。道德地位的确立虽然不能使它们成为道德主体,但可以使人类在对自然做出危害行为时承担某种道德责任与义务。在倡导尊重自然、善待自然的现代社会,一方面,生态伦理使道德关怀的伦理对象从人类社会扩展到非人类存在物的领域,从而建立起适宜人类且与地球存在物共生的生态环境,人类由此能合理的解释人与自然的关系,使我们能够以道德的方式最大限度的适应地球万物;另一方面,由于自然已成为人类文明发展的一部分,对非人类存在物的道德关怀,也能够明确我们对自然界的责任。现有的生态危机也迫切的要求我们重新审视人与自然的关系,以使人类生存更适宜。
  
  为了从源头上正视我们的生存危机,我们必须扩大道德关怀到整个生态整体,使人类也承担起对大自然相应的道德义务,自觉加强对自然环境的保护。本文引言部分,简要说明了一下选题的来源,以及国内外关于生态伦理中道德关怀的研究现状和文章所用到的研究方法以及研究意义。
  
  首章对生态伦理中的道德关怀的基本定义作了概述,对道德关怀的适用范围也作了说明,包括人与人、人与自然以及代际关系。又对道德关怀的相关概念:道德代理人和道德顾客进行了阐述。
  
  文章的二、三部分论述了道德关怀的扩展过程,寻求对非人类存在物给予道德关怀的依据,文章从传统伦理延伸到生态伦理,分别以动物解放论/权利论,为动物的道德地位辩护;以敬畏生命论和尊重大自然的思想,为生命的道德平等论证;以大地共同体、生态系统的价值、以及深生态学——生态的自我等思想,为生物和生态系统赋予价值意义提供依据。基于此,生态伦理学认为只有承认自然拥有道德权利、自然拥有内在价值、人与自然物是平等的,并把我们生存的自然环境看作整体存在,从而将一切动物、植物甚至是自然界物质都囊括到道德关怀的范围之内,把非人类存在物看作拥有道德地位的主体。再者现代环境平等观也迫切要求人类公平分配资源,共同承担生态责任,这样才能更好的解决当前生态危机,建设生态文明。
 

人对自然的德道关怀探析
 

  
  最后两章分析了道德关怀在实践中的道德要求,以期对现代生态文明建设给出一个合理引导。生态危机即最终是人类是生存危机,人的欲望是没有界限的,我们只有设立道德的规范以便来约束人的恶,保护我们生存的地球家园,保护生态共同体,更好的建构人类命运共同体。尽管生态伦理各流派的理论观点存在缺陷甚至否认了人类的主体性,但其倡导把道德关怀从动物扩展至自然界以及人与自然和谐相处的价值取向给我们以启迪与借鉴。对生态伦理中道德关怀理论的梳理本身就是回溯和再现生态伦理思想的历史发展过程。而对生态伦理道德关怀理念的探究则启示读者要正视当前生态危机,树立正确的道德观,关怀非人类存在物,保护生态环境。尤其在我们推进生态文明建设的时下,对生态伦理视域下的道德关怀进行系统梳理与逻辑考察,对其价值取向进行全面审视与深度反思,不仅具有学理价值而且具有实践意义。
  
  关键词:  生态伦理,道德关怀,自然内在价值,生态文明
  

  ABSTRACT

  
  From traditional ethics to ecological ethics, the scope of moral carehas been expanding from man to nature. The extension of ecologicalethics on the human moral concern, is to extend the power of humanmoral emotion, make contemporary and future generations of humans,animals, and ecological whole equally moral status and the same moralconsiderations. Although the establishment of moral status cannot makethem become moral subjects, it can make human beings bear certainmoral responsibilities and obligations when they do harm to nature. Inadvocating respect nature, treat nature of modern society, on the one hand,the object of ecological moral ethics and caring ethics from humansociety extended to the field of human existence, to establish theappropriate human beings with earth and symbiosis of the ecologicalenvironment, human beings can thus reasonable explanation of therelationship between human and nature, enables us to maximum limit toadapt to all species upon earth in the form of moral; On the other hand,since nature has become a part of the development of human civilization,the moral concern for non-human beings can also clarify ourresponsibility to the nature.The existing ecological crisis also urgentlyrequires us to re-examine the relationship between man and nature so as to make human survival more appropriate. In order to face up to oursurvival crisis from the source, we must expand moral concern to thewhole ecosystem as a whole, make the human also assume correspondingmoral obligations to nature, conscientiously strengthen the protection ofthe natural environment.
  
  In this paper, the author gives a brief introduction to the source ofthe topic, as well as the research status and research methods andsignificance of the research on moral consideration in ecological ethics athome and abroad.
  
  The first chapter gives an overview of the basic definition of moralconsideration in ecological ethics, and also explains the scope ofapplication of moral consideration, including interpersonal, human andnatural and intergenerational relations. The related concepts of moralconsideration: moral agent and moral customer are expounded.
  
  The second and third part of the article discusses the extensionprocess of moral concern, seeking the care of non-human beings givemoral basis, the article extend from traditional ethics to the ecologicalethics, respectively by animal liberation theory/rights theory, to defendthe moral status of animals; The moral equality of life is demonstrated bythe thought of respecting nature and respecting life. Based on the ideas ofland community, ecosystem value, deep ecology -- ecological self, etc.
  
  Based on this, ecological ethics thought only admit that nature has a moral right, nature has intrinsic value, the human and the natural objectsare equal, and the survival of our natural environment as a whole, thus allthe animals, plants and even material nature are included to the scope ofmoral concern, consider the human beings with the main body of moralstatus. In addition, the modern concept of environmental equality alsourgently requires human beings to distribute resources fairly and shareecological responsibilities, so as to better solve the current ecologicalcrisis and build ecological civilization.
  
  The last two chapters analyze the moral requirement of moralconsideration in practice in order to give a reasonable guide to theconstruction of modern ecological civilization. Ecological crisis thatultimately is the human survival crisis, there is no limit to human desire is,we only have to set up the moral norms in order to to restrain evil, protectour survival earth homes, protect the ecological community, better humandestiny community building. Although the theory of ecological ethics ofall stripes view flawed and even denied the human subjectivity, but itsadvocates the moral consideration from animal extended to nature and thevalue orientation of people and natural harmony to enlightenment andreference for us. The analysis of moral consideration theory in ecologicalethics is the historical development process of retrospection andreproduction of ecological ethics. However, the exploration of ecologicalethics and ethical concern should enlighten the readers to face up to the current ecological crisis, establish the correct morality, care fornon-human beings, and protect the ecological environment. Especially inour promotion of the construction of ecological civilization nowadays, theconcept of moral consideration from the ecological ethics systemcombing with logic, its value orientation is the comprehensive and deepreflection, not only has theoretical value and practice significance.
  
  KEY WORDS:Ecological ethics, Moral consideration, Natural’s intrinsicvalue,Ecological civilization
  
  目 录
  
  引言.

  
  (一)选题背景 .
  (二)国内外研究现状 .
  1.国外研究现状
  2.国内研究现状
  (三)研究意义和研究方法 .
  1.研究意义
  2.研究方法
  
  一、生态伦理中的道德关怀界定 .
  
  (一)道德关怀的概念
  (二)道德关怀的适用范畴
  (三)道德关怀的相关概念.
  
  二、生态伦理道德关怀边界的延伸
  
  (一)从传统伦理到生态伦理.
  (二)动物道德地位的伦理辩护.
  (三)生命道德平等理念的确立.
  (四)赋予物种及生态系统以价值意义.
  
  三、生态伦理道德关怀扩展的理论依据
  
  (一)自然的价值与权利.
  (二)环境平等观.
  (三)环境整体主义.
  
  四、伦理关怀的道德实践要求
  
  (一)热爱自然的道德情感.
  (二)践行人类应负的道德责任.
  (三)遵循环境道德原则.
  
  五、当代生态伦理道德关怀的现实启示
  
  (一)关于道德关怀的新解读.
  (二)确立尊重自然的生态人性观.
  (三)建构人类命运共同体的价值理念.
  
  结语
  
  参考文献

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