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Cultivate aesthetic feelings in junior English class

作者:原创论文网 时间:2010-07-16 16:22 加入收藏

 

Abstract:   This article attempts to unite English teaching and aesthetic education together theoretically in order to change the present situation of English teaching. It is an attempt of present quality education. The development of English teaching and aesthetic education tend to penetrate into each other. The extensive meaning of aesthetic education emphasizes to immerse the elements of aesthetic into the teaching of various subjects. English is taught as a foreign language in junior school. It is a main body of English culture. The differences between western and eastern culture determines the differences of the two languages. The differences should be emphasized. Teacher carefully organizes teaching material and plans the lesson. Moreover, they should be demonstrated in class and felt by English learners. Through teaching, learner’s culture-awareness generates, they acquire English in a spontaneous way. Their communicative competence is strengthened. And by tasting what they learned, learner’s qualities are roundly promoted. Their right life attitude, value outlook and world outlook come into being. At last, the educational aims are completed successfully. The union of the two subjects is a tendency of their development.

Key words: English teaching , aesthetic education , union , quality

Outline:
Ⅰ Introduction
   1 Compulsory education reform
   2 Present situation
   3 Question raised
Ⅱ Aesthetic education and English teaching
   1 The intensive meaning of aesthetic education
   2 The extensive meaning of aesthetic education
   3 The function of aesthetic education
a  Tasks of aesthetic education
b  Features of aesthetic education
   4 Contents of English teaching
a  English knowledge
b  English teaching method
c  Communicative competence and performance
   5 The union of the two subjects
Ⅲ Concrete requirements of union of the two subjects
   1 Feelings and tasting are emphasized in class
   2 Materials of appreciation of beauty for class
   3 Cultural and communicative factors
   4 Teacher’s role in class
   5 Evaluation of class
Ⅳ Principles of union of the two subjects
   1 Principle of feeling and tasting
   2 Principle of communication
   3 Principle of union
   4 Principle of development
 
Compulsory education reform
The indication outline of new curriculum reform points out that change the knowledge-orientation of curriculum , emphasize the shape-up of students’ active attitude of studying , make the course of acquisition of basic knowledge and basic skills to the course of configuration of right value outlook and learn to study, cultivate students’ abilities of gathering and conducting with the information, abilities of acquiring new knowledge and abilities of analyzing and solving problems and abilities of interaction and cooperating ,let students feel and appreciate the beauty of life ,nature ,and science. The evaluation of curriculum stresses that evaluation promotes the students’ development and growth, promotes teachers’ qualities and improve the practice of teaching. One of the important aspects of evaluation highlights shape-up of value outlook and attitude on study as well as students’ feelings and taste. The notion of education is changed, learning and teaching styles should be changed accordingly. These requirements are accord with the notion of the broad meaning of aesthetic education. Therefore the factors of appreciation of beauty should be immersed into class. They tend to be united. This will intensify humane factors of class. The function of lecturing of class is still maintained. However , class is treated from a new angle of view. It means the structure of class differs from the traditional structure of class.
In Information Age, people lives in the information. How to acquire and conduct with the information becomes one of people’s qualities. Juvenile is a special group because of their psychological features. They should be cultivated to distinguish and appreciate the things around them. Appreciation is a kind of mental activities. So learning to distinguish and appreciate is merely through class where the juvenile’s brain is the most active in.
The requirements of compulsory education reform and present situation raise questions for our teaching. That is how to find a round way to solve the problems existed in class. The development of aesthetic education makes us confident in it. Before the functions of aesthetic education are not completely recognized, we ignore it. Now, many research demonstrate that aesthetic education plays a very important role in teaching and learning, it penetrates into every part of individual’s learning, especially in acquiring English. Therefore, it is necessary to unite them together. In the following paragraphs, I will interpret the union of aesthetic education and English teaching.
Before the topic is elaborated. I will talk about aesthetic education firstly. The following sections are founded on how to comprehend the concept of aesthetic education.
Aesthetic education, a main branch of curriculum, has existed for a long time. It is the accomplishment of human being’s cognition. As we know, in traditional class, aesthetic education is art such as painting, singing, dancing. In such a class, students are taught to knowledge of art, skills and technical ability. Beauty is treated as an entity and enclosed in a small area. This concept is in accord to the level of human being’s cognition. It ignores people’s attitude, feelings, experience. The outcome of such an education is that some artists create some beautiful things like paintings, sculptures, songs, and so on for most of persons. These artists are elites. Therefore, this sort of aesthetic education is not successful.        
Nowadays, beauty should not be enclosed in a small area. Beauty is universally exists around the world where human beings acknowledge. Everyone tastes of the world by his own way. Appreciation is internal spiritual demand of one’s own as well as connects with one’s moral standards of behaviors, world outlook, life attitude, state of mind. So appreciation of beauty is individuals’ especial spiritual activity .It is affected by one’s experience and cognitive competence. For instance, people have different opinions on colorful body paintings. Old people may not stand it. Some young people may not mind it. However, the other part of young people may love it and want to try. Everyone appreciates the beauty of the paintings by his own way and makes his own judgment. The judgment generates and becomes his experience. The experience will affect his later appreciation of beauty. When he accumulates the experience to a certain amount, his concept of appreciation of beauty comes into being. Configuration of the concept heralds of configuration of his deep psychological structure, i.e, his moral standards of behavior and world outlook. This deep psychological structure is stabler than before, but is relative and can be changed. Therefore appreciation of beauty is human beings’ spiritual activity. It is arbitrary and connects with the formation of one’s world outlook. Vise versa. If measures are taken to influence juvenile’s appreciation, their deep psychological structure will come into being. Moreover, it will be good for the moulding of their good characters. In terms of aesthetic education, appreciation of beauty is a way by which juvenile’s humane qualities can be strengthened, their discerning power can be promoted and their potential intelligence can be stimulated.  
The tasks of aesthetic education are to develop students’ sense of appreciation of beauty and ability and train their creativity. The essence of appreciation of beauty is to continually transcend the limits of selves. Its aim is to shock students’ mind, soul as well as characters, accelerates the growth of students’ spiritual life. This concept is very different from the previous one. It enlarges connotation and denotation of aesthetic education. It is the development of the previous one. It deepens human being’s cognition of appreciation of beauty. The activities of appreciation of beauty provides entrance for the inspiration and expressions of lives.
The features of aesthetic education: aesthetic education puts emphasis on perceptual education. Appreciation is a special active value-orientation activity of human being’s. Aesthetic education is a kind of education of feelings which focus on tasting. The standards of value of aesthetic education firstly must be beauty as well as truth and virtue. There is no feelings involved, there is no action of appreciation of beauty happened. The evaluation of the student’s ability of appreciation of beauty is formative , that is the standards of evaluation does not concentrate on the result of appreciation of beauty but the course of appreciation of beauty.
English, as a language, is the dress of thought. Language is most essential to mankind. It is used every day .Hardly any moment passes without someone talking, writing or reading. Our lives increasingly depend on fast and successful use of language. In terms of linguistics, language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbols used for human communication. This system has two sets of structures , one of sounds and the other of meaning . Meanwhile, it is a part of culture. English taught as a subject is components of vocabulary, grammar and phonetics. In this opinion, it is well known that learning English is as same as learning vocabulary ,grammar and phonetics. Students are trained to read ,write and listen. They seldom say English. Moreover, their feelings, personalities, attitudes are not cared for in class. Their learning merely depend on their interest in English. English knowledge is highly emphasized in class. Their motivation of learning English is not cared for. Their learning methods are to try their best to memorize the English knowledge. Certainly their English is not good enough to communicate. Class is held in an efficient way. Teaching is not successful.
As we know , we do not learn a language but acquire a language. What we learn is not a language but the use of a language. Therefore , English knowledge is not unique in class. We learn English not only intentionally but also unconsciously. English class also contains students’ cultural awareness, feelings and attitude, communicate competence, creativity etc. The recessive contents cannot obviously be taught in class. They are concerned with students’ mind. They should be achieved by another way . That is aesthetic education in junior English class. The recessive target is the underlied element that brings about students’ successful communication. Words are the forms of the successful communication. The ideal class is to combine the recessive target and the forms into an entity harmoniously and naturally. The contents of class can stimulate students’ feelings and make students be involved in class actively and spontaneously. Let students say what they want to say from their hearts and say the things they are interested in. Teacher is a participant in the activity, not a supervisor. Or not a lecturer but a guider. Students’ thoughts can be expressed freely.
Culture is an important property of language, language is a main body of culture, the two partly cross and penetrate. One culture obviously differs from other cultures. In terms of culture, language signifies culture and has a dialectical feature. To be bilingual, one must be bicultural.  English is spoken widely in the world, moreover, many books, newspapers are published in English. Most of countries take English as their official language. In terms of English teaching, it is very important to master social culture in English-spoken countries.  The differences between western and eastern culture determines the differences of languages which includes syntax, vocabulary, expressions, contents of expressions, context, and so on. Sensitive learners should acknowledge and adapt to the differences. This kind of acknowledgement, absorption and adoption to the social culture of English-spoken countries is the cultural awareness that the learners must have to master English. The aim of foreign language teaching is to have cross-culture communication. At present, many schools have quality education, however, acquisition of communicative competence is an important aspect of students’ qualities. In communicative method, junior English teaching has made great progress. Besides it, we should put emphasis on the important factor that influence students’ communicative competence. In order to get it, we should cultivate it in class. Furthermore, it is an efficient way to cultivate aesthetic feelings in junior English class. By means of it, students can acquire English in a spontaneous circumstance effectively.
In one word, what we get is more than what we give in this way. It make up their good personality, shape up their deep psychological structures, make them distinguish and appreciate the things around them, cultivate qualities for their future life.

As a teaching style resulted in the crossing of two subjects, its content are myriad. As a new teaching viewpoint, it prefers to unite subject and object harmoniously. Feelings are bound them together and unite them to form one. The subjects are teachers and students. The subject’s sense of participation is a key factor in class. The class is successful or not is decided by the degree of sense of participation. The object refers to teaching material, interactions between students and teachers, teaching aims , situation of class as well as teaching behavior and studying behavior. What to do in a class is designed by teacher according to the students’ state. Besides it, the teacher should think over how to teach and why to do so. Therefore, the class is carefully prepared for every student and full of resource.
In the course of designing such a class, teacher explore the teaching material to find and select the teaching material which is bound to the appreciation, organize them due to the teaching aims, not only dominant one but recessive one. It is important to stress the recessive aims. They should be immersed into teaching activities. The realization of recessive aims strengthens sense of subject as well as sense of participation. In the meantime, their mind is activated. The center of gravity of class is transferred from knowledge-center to student-center. Students actively study by means of their experience. The teaching effects cannot be acquired by the way of only concentrating on knowledge. For instance, when we teach students who are new in junior school phonetic symbols, they may confuse them with alphabets. This phenomenon demonstrate that they acquire new things by their own experience. They accounts for new things in their own way. However, they get wrong. But if we train them mechanically, they may lose the interest of learning English and will still get wrong. The teaching aims are not completed. If we concentrate on students, not phonetic symbols, and care for the differences between students, stimulate them to join in the recognition of phonetic symbols, they may get them easily. The possible behavior is to ask them “how do you remember the symbols?” . Get students to say what they thought.. To do so , students participates in class actively and spontaneously. Their feelings are aroused . So the teaching effect is better than previous one. Therefore, the recessive aim is a thread run through the class. In English textbook, there are many things can be conducted with this method. What teacher do is to select and design, let English be English, that is to make the differences between the two cultures clear, get students to acquire English in spontaneous way. And teacher should try one’s best to relate the teaching material with students’ lives in order to make sense of what they learned.
The relationship between teacher and students is also very important. Good relationship makes better circumstance and provides adequate conditions for communication. Moreover, it itself is a part of beauty in English class. On a basis of it, teaching practice can be completed creatively. Harmonious relationship of teachers and students guarantees the successful teaching. Meanwhile, students taste the beauty of interpersonal relationship. Their communicative competence is cultivated in the course of associating in English. It develops students’ abilities such as making decision, giving opinions, tasting feelings.
There are many factors of aesthetic of education in English teaching material. The cultural factors are dominant. They provide myriad intuitional materials for students. Every part of life demonstrates the differences between different cultures. So in English acquisition, these factors should be embodied. Teachers should create proper situations to show the differences for students and get students to acquire English in a spontaneous way. When students were in such a situation, in contact with their own conventions and courtesies, they taste these cultural factors that are different from theirs, their mind is activated. Studying behaviors are naturally produced. And the effects of these behavior is better than the effects that lecturing to students.
In class, besides the activities that teacher designed for students, they play an important role in English teaching. Teacher is one of objects of students’ appreciation of beauty. A good teacher’s qualities and character are the best education to them. It is the key factor that whether or not aesthetic education is immersed into English class. A teacher’s qualities and character are mainly components of knowledge, moral and grace., A teacher ‘s virtue , spacious knowledge and graceful mold can educate students directly and powerfully. The teaching contents could be easily accepted by students. The teaching aims could be easily completed. Teacher’s role is to make students appreciate and create beauty. The teacher not only manipulate the activities but also dominate students’ feelings. The teaching activities are held in a delightful and active circumstance. Teacher’s tactics are required to be skillful and abundant. The experienced teacher should configurate one’s own teaching style and stimulate one’s teaching experience to teaching model. The teacher also should use modern technical teaching device to affect teaching. In this way, teaching materials are demonstrated directly and visually in order to turn on students. Class of appreciation of beauty requires a high-qualified teacher.(论文下载网 www.lunwenda.com )
The evaluation of class of appreciation of beauty guarantees the development of teaching reform.. The criteria of evaluation plays the role of encouragement and direction. In terms of students, acquisition of communicative performance, learning strategies and creativity are considered as criteria. In terms of teachers, the awareness of self-developing should be deserved. The teaching plan and design should demonstrate creativity and elements of appreciation of beauty. Class should contain feelings. The forms of   evaluation vary. Formative evaluation and diagnostic evaluation should be emphasized in class.
Principles in English teaching of appreciation of beauty.
As a union of English teaching and aesthetic education, feelings and tasting is one of its properties. It aims at shaping up students’ good characters, life attitude, and perfect personalities. Teaching of appreciation of beauty is a sophisticated cognition styles. It is different from rational cognition and logical reason. So feelings and tasting are treated as a principle.
Communicative competence and performance are English learner’s qualities. Communication should be immersed into the class. In this way, English is not lectured by teacher but acquired by students. Students acquire English in a spontaneous circumstance but not an artificial one. They learn to use English delicately but not to receive lecture. Their activities are highly appreciated. They actively participate the class. The circumstance inspires them to create. Therefore, the class obeys the principle of creativity.
As a teaching way, it is effective or not to be determined by the teaching effects, that is what the students acquired and how much they acquired. The teaching aims are fulfilled or not. Therefore the class should obey the principle of development.
Generally speaking, whatever teaching aims, teaching contents, teaching organization and method as well as textbooks, should be in pursuit of beauty. Students are edified by the beauty of materials and enlightened their intelligence. They are attracted by the approach of beauty and stimulated the desire of seeking knowledge.


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